Prehistoric herbivore fossils found in Kenya

Prodeinotherium

Prodeinotherium was a genus of Proboscidean that existed during the late Miocene. It belongs to the Family Deinotheridae which is made of Proboscideans with downward facing tusks. The species found in Kenya is Prodeinotherium hobleyi which was the first species of Prodeinotherium, and it migrated into Asia and Europe before evolving into Prodeinotherium pentapotamiae (in Asia) and then Prodeinotherium bavaricum (In Europe)

Image courtesy of Alchetron

All Deinotheridae were large, at 2.5m to 2.8m tall and weighing 3 to 4 tonnes.All had downward curving tusks. Prodeinotherium hobleyi was found on the Wayondo formation on Rusinga island.

Archaeobelodon

Archaeobelodon was a genus of Proboscidean belonging to the Family Gomphotheriidae. It is an ancestor of Platybelodon and Amebelodon


Courtesy of atozanimals.net

The only known species is Archaeobelodon Filholi. Its remains have been found on the Wayondo formation on Rusinga island.

Afrochoerodon

Afrochoerodon was a genus of proboscidean that existed during the Miocene. It belongs to the family Gomphotheriidae

The species whose remains were found in Kenya is Afrochoerodon Kisumuensis. It was found on the Muruyur formation (Tugen Hills, Baringo county) and on the Maboko formation on Maboko island in Kisumu county.

Choerolophodon

Choerolophodon is a genus of proboscidean that existed during the Miocene. It belongs to the family Gomphotheriidae

The species whose remains were found in Kenya is Choerolophodon Kisumuensis. It was found on Maboko formation on Maboko island in Kisumu county.

Eozygodon

Eozygodon was a genus of proboscidean belonging to the family Mammutidae. The species found in Kenya is Eozygodon morotoensia. Its remains were found in Koru, Kisumu county.

Kenyapotamus

Kenyapotamus is considered to be a possible ancestor to modern Hippopotamus. A number of different species have been found in Kenya including Kenyapotamus  Coryndae which was found in the Nakali formation (Turkana county) and Kenyapotamus  Ternani, which was found at Fort Ternan in Kericho county

Brachyodus

Brachyodus was a genus of hippo like herbivore. It belongs to the family Anthracotheriidae. Modern Hippos may have evolved from Anthracotheres. The species found in Kenya is Brachyodus  equatorialis. Its remains were found in Koru, Kisumu county.

Hyoboops

Hyoboops was a genus of herbivore belong to the Anthracotheriidae family. The species found in Kenya is Hyoboops Africanus.  Its remains have been found on the Kulu formation on Rusinga island.

Nguruwe Kijivium

Nguruwe Kijivium was a pg like herbivore belonging to the Order Suidae. Its remains were found in Koru, Kisumu county and on Rusinga island.

Chalicotherium

Chalicotherium was a genus of ungulates that belongs to the family Chalicotherioidea and order Perissodactyla. It existed during the Oligocene, Pliocene and Miocene periods. It was odd looking with clawed forelimbs and much longer and more powerful hind limbs.It had the body of a sloth and the head of horse. It was a massive animal, standing 2.6 metres at the shoulder. Chalicotherium used its hind legs to support its weight while feeding. The forelegs were used for feeding. To protect its claws, Chalicotherium walked on its knuckles.

 

Courtesy Arch Survival

The species that was found in Kenya is Chalicotherium  Rusingense. Its fossil remains were found on the Kulu formation of Rusinga island and on Mfangano Island.

Rusingaceros

Rusingaceros is known as the oldest known modern Rhinocerous that existed during the Miocene. It consists of only one species: Rusingaceros  Leakeyi, that was previously known as Dicerorhinus Leakeyi.  It belongs to the family Rhinocerotidae and order Perissodactyla. Its fossil remains have been found on Rusinga island as well as Maboko Island.

Aceratherium

Aceratherium was a Genus of hornless Rhinoceros that existed during the Miocene period. It belongs to the Subfamily Aceratheriinae and family Rhinocerotidae. The species that was found in Kenya is Aceratherium Acutirostratum. It has been found on Rusinga Island, Maboko Island and at Karungu in Migori county.

Chilotheridium

Chilotheridium was a genus of Rhinocerotid that existed in the Upper Miocene. It belongs to the family Rhinocerotidae and order Perissodactyla. The species found in Kenya is Chilotheridium pattersoni, Its fossil remains have been found on the Wayondo formation on Rusinga island as well as Namurungule and Nakali Formations, northern Kenya

Megalotragus

Megalotragus was a genus of very large extinct African alcelaphines. It existed during the Pliocene to early Holocene It resembled modern hartebeests, but much larger reaching a shoulder height of 1.4 m (4.6 ft). The genus consists of three species of which Megalotragus priscus survived until the early Holocene

Paradiceros

Paradiceros was genus belonging to the subfamily Dicerorhininae of the family Rhinocerotidae. The species found in Kenya is Paradiceros mukirii . Its remains were found in Uyoma, Siaya county.

Rusingoryx

Rusingoryx is a genus of bovid that existed during the Pleistocene. The only known species is Rusingoryx atopocranion. As the name suggests, its remains were found in Rusinga Island. Its is closely related to wilderbeest.  It is noted for its pointed nose with a large nasal dome, that was used for vocalization.

Megalohyrax

Megalohyrax is a genus belonging to the family Pliohyracidae and order Hyracoidea. It existed in the lower Oligocene (30 million years ago). The species found in Kenya is Megalohyrax Championi. Its remains have been found in Karungu, Migori County.

Kenyasus

Kenyasus is a genus that existed in the Miocene. It belongs to the family Suidae which includes Pigs, Hogs, Warthogs and other similar animals. The remains of at least three Species have been found in Kenya: Kenyasus kirimunensis which was found at Kipsaraman, Kenyasus namaquensis and Kenyasus Rusingensis which was found on Rusinga island.

Listriodon

Listriodon is a genus that existed in the Miocene. It belongs to the family Suidae which includes Pigs, Hogs, Warthogs and other similar animals. It is characterized by curved upper canines similar to those of a warthog. Its remains have been found at Fort Ternan

Dorcatherium

Dorcatherium is a genus that existed during the Miocene. It belongs to the family Tranguilidae (Chevrotain or Mouse Deer). Fossil remains of this Genus are numerous and have been found all over Europe and Africa. The species whose remains were found in Kenya is Dorcatherium Chappuisi, Dorcatherium piggoti and Dorcatherium Parvum.

Diamantohyus

Diamantohyus is an genus that existed in the Miocene period. It belongs to the family Sanitheriidae. The remains of two species have been found in Kenya: Diamantohyus africanus and Diamantohyus Leuderitzi, which were both found at Karungu in Migori County,

Libycochoerus

Libycochoerus was a genus of long legged pig like animals belonging to the Suidae family which comprises Pigs, Boars and other Pig like animals. The species found in Kenya include Libycochoerus Jeannelli whose fossil remains were found on the Wayondo formation on Rusinga Island, Libycochoerus massai from the Tugen hills

Orycteropus

Orycteropus was a genus of the order Tubulidentata which includes modern Aardvarks. It existed during the late miocene. The species found in Kenya is Orycteropus Africanus.  Its remains have been found in the Wayondo formation on Rusinga Island.

Propalaeoryx

Propalaeoryx was a genus of herbivore that existed during the Miocene. It is closely related to Giraffids. The species found in Kenya are Propalaeoryx Climacoceras, Propalaeoryx Prolibytherium and Propalaeoryx Nyanzae. Remains have been found at Fort Ternam and on Rusinga island. Climacoceras had long horns and two prongs.

Canthumeryx

Canthumeryx was a genus of Giraffid. It is considered an ancestor of modern giraffes. It shows evidence of the beginnings of the evolution of the long neck. Its remains were found on the Wayondo formation.

Samotherium

Samotherium was a genus of herbivore that belonged to the family Giraffidae. Like modern giraffes, it had two ossicones on its head. It appears to be transitioning towards having a long neck. It existed during the Miocene. The species found in Kenya  is Samotherium  Primaevus. Its remains have been found in Uyoma, Siaya county.

Protragocerus

Protragocerus is a genus of antelope that existed during the Miocene. It belongs to the the tribe Boselaphini, subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. The species found in Kenya is Protragocerus  Labidotus. It was found in Uyoma, Siaya county.

Caprotragoides

Caprotragoides was a genus belonging to the tribe Caprini, subfamily Caprinae and family Bovidae. It existed in the Miocene period. The species found in Kenya is Caprotragoides Gentryi.

Walangania

Walangania is a genus of herbivore that existed during the Miocene. Its exact classification is not known. There is no consensus on whether it belongs to the Order Bovidae (Cattle-like) or the Order Cervidae (Deer). The species found in Kenya is Walangania Africanus. Its remains were found on the Kulu formation on Rusinga island.


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